The new density of nonfatal cardio occurrences, such as myocardial infarction otherwise coronary surgery, wasn’t a reason for censoring

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The new density of nonfatal cardio occurrences, such as myocardial infarction otherwise coronary surgery, wasn’t a reason for censoring

Analytical Data

Participants contributed follow-up time from the return of the 1986 questionnaire up to the occurrence of a confirmed stroke, death, or January 31, 1994. Intakes of potassium and other nutrients were energy-adjusted to 2000 kcal/d. 16 Relative risks (RR) were calculated by dividing the incidence of stroke among men in each fifth of energy-adjusted potassium intake at baseline by the incidence among men in the lowest fifth of intake. Similar calculations were done for the other nutrients. We adjusted RRs for age (5-year categories) 17 and used the Mantel extension test 18 to test for linear trends. To adjust for other risk factors, we used pooled logistic regression with 2-year intervals. When the probability of an event within an interval is small, this method is equivalent to a Cox proportional-hazards analysis. 19 Multivariate models included as covariates calendar time (2-year intervals), total energy intake (continuous variable), https://hookupfornight.com/lesbian-hookup/ smoking (current, past, and 1 to 14, 15 to 24, and ?25 cigarettes/d), alcohol consumption (<5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, 15 to 29, and ?30 g/d), history of hypertension, history of hypercholesterolemia, parental history of myocardial infarction before age 65 years, profession, and quintiles of body mass index and physical activity. In these models, we evaluated monotonic trends by using the median value of each category and modeling this as a continuous variable. All P values are 2-sided. Covariates were not updated during the follow-up.

Efficiency

Throughout the 323 394 individual-years of pursue-right up, we reported 328 cases of cerebrovascular injuries (fifty deadly), together with 210 ischemic, 70 hemorrhagic, and forty-eight unclassified strokes. Males in the most useful fifth of potassium intake (and additionally potassium off drugs) was basically less likely to tobacco cigarette, was in fact a whole lot more in person effective, and you will ate shorter alcoholic beverages, reduced pounds, a whole lot more proteins, and a lot more micronutrients than simply boys at the end fifth (Dining table step 1 ). Equivalent connections were located getting magnesium, dietary fiber, and you can calcium (research perhaps not found). Age-modified RR away from complete coronary attack for men regarding finest 5th away from potassium consumption compared with those in the bottom 5th try 0.59 (Desk 2 ). It RR try quite attenuated of the variations having nondietary risk products (RR=0.62) and also by subsequent modifications to possess consumption out-of magnesium and dietary fiber (RR=0.69). The newest associated connections with ischemic coronary arrest was basically equivalent, whereas no extreme relationships was basically noticed for hemorrhagic stroke (investigation perhaps not revealed). Further improvement getting intakes out of full body weight, protein, saturated fat, vitamin C, vitamin e, carotene, otherwise folic acid don’t materially change the organization anywhere between potassium intake and you will likelihood of total coronary attack, neither performed adjustment having standard systolic and you may diastolic blood pressure levels otherwise introduction to the model of an interaction title anywhere between ages and blood pressure.

Intakes out of soluble fiber and you will magnesium was both inversely associated with the likelihood of total stroke in age-adjusted analyses (Dining table 2 ). These connectivity was indeed just moderately attenuated because of the improvement having nondietary chance circumstances, nevertheless they were substantially weakened when you look at the regression activities that in addition included potassium, magnesium, and you can soluble fiber from the confident correlations between consumption away from this type of nourishment (Pearson correlation coefficients was in fact 0.65 to own magnesium and you may potassium, 0.62 for magnesium and you will dietary fiber, and you may 0.58 for potassium and you may fiber).

None calcium supplements nor salt intake (data maybe not revealed) is somewhat regarding the likelihood of overall, ischemic, otherwise hemorrhagic coronary arrest. Sodium consumption was also not related to intake of potassium (Pearson correlation = ?0.02) and you may was not analyzed after that. Once the for the a previous study an inverse organization try said between calcium from milk products offer and you can likelihood of coronary attack, 20 i tested this dating inside our cohort. The latest multivariate chance on greatest weighed against the base quintile of dairy calcium consumption try 0.83 (95% CI, 0.59, step 1.17) for complete (Dining table dos ), 0.ninety (95% CI, 0.59, 1.37) to own ischemic, and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.thirty-six, step one.51) to possess hemorrhagic coronary arrest; a minimal incidence of every lead are noticed in the center quintile regarding intake. Also, i checked out whether the risk of heart attack was all the way down certainly men which advertised having fun with calcium in the baseline. The latest RR for males which got ?eight hundred mg/d from supplemental calcium compared with nonusers try 0.88 to have total coronary attack (95% CI, 0.sixty, step one.27) and you may 0.83 for ischemic stroke (95% CI, 0.52, step one.34).

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